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Returns on investments

The graph series in this page shows the average return percentages for two long return periods: from 1998 to the latest full year and the past five years. In addition, we present the most recent information available on the following two: the six-month return for January–June or the full year return for January–December.

Formation of return

The returns on earnings-related pension investments consist of two parts: cash returns and changes in the value of invested assets.

  • Cash returns include all direct cash flows produced by the investments, such as dividends, interest income and premiums on derivatives. They are always positive.
  • Changes in the value of invested assets may be positive or negative. This is because the values of invested assets may rise or fall, depending on the situation.

When the values of invested assets fall sharply, the total returns on investments may turn negative. This happened, for instance, in 2011. Conversely, a rapid increase in the value of invested assets occasionally brings about a considerable rise in the total returns on investments. This happened, for instance, in 2009.

A large proportion of the assets of pension insurers is invested in targets whose value is quoted on the market continuously.

In practice, the greatest value changes take place among shares listed on a stock exchange. Similarly, the quoted values of various interest instruments and bonds vary constantly. However, their value changes are smaller than those of listed shares.

Until such time as the assets are sold, their value changes are deferred. Even then, the value changes must be reported in the pension insurers’ figures for investment returns and solvency calculations.

Rate of return on earnings-related pension investments

The returns on earnings-related pension investments are most commonly followed by means of the rate of return. It is calculated by proportioning the return on the investment in euros to the capital employed during the time when the return was accumulated. The capital employed is calculated by applying the relevant regulations issued by the Financial Supervisory Authority.

The Financial Supervisory Authority’s regulations pertain to periods that do not exceed one year.

The average rate of return over periods longer than one year is calculated applying a recommendation common to the earnings-related pension sector, which is approved by our Investment Reporting Group:

The following graphs illustrate the rates of return for earnings-related pension investments over three periods by pension institution group and by the principal investment type (fixed-income investments, shares and holdings, and real estate investments).

The periods used in the graphs are:

  • since 1998, ending with the last full calendar year
  • the last five full calendar years
  • the most recent information available on the following two:
    •  semi-annual return for January–June
    •  annual return for January–December

In addition to the returns of our members, we illustrate the general trend of the stock market by means of the return trends shown by some stock indices.

Returns of all pension providers by main investment type

Nominal rate of return on investments, all pension providers.

Returns by the type of pension institution

Returns of pension insurance companies

Returns of public sector pension insurers

Returns of company pension funds and industry-wide pension funds

Return development of shared index

Change of stock indices and rate of return on equity in 30.6.2021.
Annual changes of indices and annual rate of return on equity in 2016-2020.

The graphs describing the returns on investments can also be downloaded in PowerPoint format. If the graphs are used in other contexts, their source must be cited.

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